The Element Carbon

The Element – Carbon

Atomic Number:6
Atomic Weight:12.0107
Element Classification:Non-Metal
Period Number:2
Group Number:14
Group Name:None
Density (Graphite):2.2670g/cm³
Phase at Room Temperature:Solid
Melting Point (K):3820
Boiling Point (K):5100
Appearance (Carbon Black):Dense, Black
Atomic Volume (cc/mol):5.3
Ionic Radius:16 (+4e) 260 (-4e)
Specific Heat (@20°C J/g mol):0.711
Debye Temperature (°K):1860
Pauling Negativity Number:2.55
First Ionizing Energy (kJ/mol):1085.7
Oxidation States:4, 2, -4
Lattice Structure:Diagonal
Lattice Constant (Å):3.57
Crystal Structure:Hexagonal
Electronegativity (Pauling Scale):2.55
Atomic Radius:70 pm
Atomic Radius (calc.):67 pm
Covalent Radius:77 pm
Van der Waals Radius:170 pm
Magnetic Ordering:Diamagnetic
Thermal Conductivity (300 K) (Graphite):(119–165) W·m−1·K−1
Thermal Conductivity (300 K) (Crystallized Carbon):(900–2320) W·m−1·K−1
Thermal Diffusivity (300 K) (Crystallized Carbon):(503–1300) mm²/s
Mohs Hardness (Graphite):1-2
Mohs Hardness (Crystallized Carbon):10.0
CAS Registry Number:7440-44-0
Ionization Energy:11.260 eV
Oxidation States:+4, +2, -4
Electron Shell Configuration:1s²
 2s² 2p²

References: Los Alamos National Laboratory (2001), Crescent Chemical Company (2001), Lange’s Handbook of Chemistry (1952)

What’s in a name? From the Latin word for charcoal, carbo.

Say what? Carbon is pronounced as KAR-ben.